ITGS Syllabus

Tuesday, June 05, 2007

Topic 222

Military: cyberwarfare, smart weapons development, espionage by Roger

This is a new area of study as well as actual work for this topic area is mostly associated with the military or it was the military that are pioneering in this field of work. Cyber warfare is a relatively new type of weaponry with various effects on the target. Cyber warfare is usually basic programs that have the objective to defend or attack a target. Growing with recognition and soon enough most of the world’s governments will use it often. T

here are several methods of attack in cyber-warfare, here it is placed in order from mildest to most severe: Web vandalism; form of attack that defaces webpages, propaganda; political messages sent to anyone with access to the internet, gathering data; classified information that is not secured can be intercepted and modified making espionage possible. Equipment disruption military activities which use computers and satellites are at risk of attack where orders and commands that can be intercepted and changed putting soldiers at risk. Also attacking critical infrastructure; power, fuel, communications, commercial and transportation are all venerable to a cyber attack.

Another close link to cyber warfare is the development of smart weapons especially bombs of high explosives for creating a bigger destruction than just hand weapons or combat equipment. The first ones began in the 1980’s which was led by the US Air force and Navy by starting one of the first “next generation” weapons by initiating stages of production. Some of the first smart weapons to be developed with good precision were: Joint Stand-off Weapon (JSOW) is an adverse-weather, short-range, stand-off anti-armor/SEAD dispenser weapon.

A small number of these weapons became operational with the Navy in December 1997. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is an Inertial Navigation System (INS)/GPS guidance tail kit that converts dumb bombs into accurate adverse-weather capable weapons. JDAM was certified as operational capable on the B-2 in July 1997, and achieved operational status with other selected Air Force units in late 1998, including Limited Initial Operational Capability which was achieved on the B-52 in December 1998.

The key people involved in this field are the military who have developed the idea and are now putting it to use by giving contracts to commercial companies interested constructing what the military wants. These new weapons have huge capabilities both in its technological edge but also its firepower and effect which is what now concerns many of the world leaders.

Also related to these two topics is espionage which has come a long way from the ancient times of the Egyptians to modern day spying which is mostly known to be linked to the military but also commercial companies where the its term is industrial espionage. Espionage (spying) is a practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information.

Espionage in the military sense is done throughout the whole world as rival military powers check on each other to see if one is getting more powerful than the other. All these topics concerning cyber warfare, smart weapons, and espionage was, is, and will be a major issue among the world’s military for it just a never ending cycle of racing as each member tries to see if it can be more powerful militarily and remain strong.

The military are mostly the leaders in these types of area where they are always seeking ways to make themselves more deadly by creating newer and innovative weapons such as the smart weapons. The advantage about that is that they understand and know how to use it and can protect the nation. They also can improve their technology implementation to be more advanced plus they are responsible but the disadvantage of that is they will face tension coming from the international scene or locally and their governments may want them to do certain things and stop them from doing certain things with their new technology and will most likely receive all the blame if something negative happens.

It is best to create certain specified fields within the military to technological or advance programs which is being carried out but on a level not quite significant for it is a constantly changing area. These military-related subjects are part of the military arsenal so it is intended to cause some sort of problem for the enemy such as in a cyber war, certain programs like viruses but more powerful and smart will destroy enemy databases casing information to be corrupted and affect the enemy’s performance in a war or fight. Smart weapons could cause huge amounts of destruction to a specific area causing enemy’s to suffer losses to their military supplies etc. Espionage can help to find out the enemy’s plans and counter-attack them to their surprise and provide information on the amount or types of weapons used by the enemy or their battle tactics.

Theses topics will cause huge tensions between nations as is seen in N. Korea where Kim Jung IL is building long-range missiles with nuclear capabilities causing widespread anger also locally people wouldn’t want to face a war. Nations could e involved on stalemates or other impacts such as economic boycott or sanctions etc. to cause a nation great suffering. It may depend on the government for they are the key decision-makers so if they make certain decisions then it is carried out unless the people are against it because usually when the government makes a decision then it is done so the people are included in too.

In a dictatorial state the decision falls on a small body of the dictatorship neglecting the people so that is ethically not right for the people are rarely permitted to voice their views and feelings towards the issues concerning them as the nation’s citizens. As was in the case of Saddam Hussein, after his capture, he was taken to trial by the new Iraqi government and sentenced to death by hanging which happened. So whoever responsible will face a certain penalty likewise with the ones held accountable such as Saddam whose orders had many people killed by his army.

Careful consideration should be taken as these technology/knowledge is shared for the slightest misuse can cause huge catastrophes for the world now is very conscious of its surroundings and any nation may want to get militarily strong but the receiving candidates should be screened cautiously cause there might a few Saddams out there. But these will lead on to more tension because certain nations or leaders may complain and there will be bad relationships among nations or leaders.

Word Cont: 1, 101



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