ITGS Syllabus

Sunday, June 18, 2006

Topic 99

Sound, image and video capture and editing by Chirag

The main sources of entertainment today are through music, movies and other kinds of technologies. For different places in the world people spend months and year making television programs or music album that we listen to or watch in our everyday life. All this is done by different types of processes and mechanical instruments like microphones, video cameras, digital cameras etc.

Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, usually used for the voice or for music. The old method of recording sound is called analog recording.

Analog recording is a technique used to store audio or video signals for later playback. The analog recording method stores signals as a continual wave in/on the media, rather than the discrete numbers used in digital recording. The wave is stored as a physical texture on a phonograph record, or a fluctuation in the field strength of a magnetic recording. A perceived drawback of many analog recordings was noise of the media, or of the equipment, and of production equipment limitations. Repeat playing of a gramophone record introduces wear that made the original recording more difficult to hear over the noise level. Careful removal of dirt is helpful; as is careful handling.

The other type of recording that is used today is digital recording. In digital recording, the analog signal of a sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound or moving image.

The invention of digital sound recording and the compact disc in 1983 brought massive improvements in the durability and sound quality of consumer recordings. The CD initiated another massive wave of change in the consumer music industry, with vinyl records effectively relegated to a small niche market by the mid-1990s.

The most recent and revolutionary developments have been in digital recording, with the invention of the first purely electronic consumer recording format -- the MP3 digital music file -- accompanied by the invention of solid-state computerized digital audio players like the Apple iPod. New technologies such as Super Audio CD and DVD-A continue to set very hi-fi digital standards. The field covers many areas, from Hi-Fi to Professional audio, Internet radio and Podcasting.

Technological developments in recording and editing have transformed the record, movie and television industries in recent decades. Audio editing became practicable with the invention of magnetic tape recording, but the use of computers has made editing operations faster and easier to execute, and the use of hard-drives for storage has made recording cheaper.

We now divide the process of making a recording into tracking, mixing and mastering. Multitrack recording makes it possible to capture sound from several microphones, or from different 'takes' to tape or disc with maximum headroom and quality, allowing maximum flexibility in the mixing and mastering stages for editing, level balancing, compressing and limiting, and the addition of effects.

By images the thought that strikes our mind at first is photography. Today the technology is advancing tremendously fast with new types of cameras coming out in the market every day. Traditional photography was a considerable burden for photographers working at remote locations (such as press correspondents) without access to processing facilities.

With increased competition from television there was pressure to deliver their images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo-journalists at remote locations would carry a miniature photo lab with them and some means of transmitting their images down the telephone line. In 1981 Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a CCD for imaging, and which required no film -- the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica did save images to disk, the images themselves were displayed on television, and therefore the camera could not be considered fully digital. In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera.

Its cost precluded any use other than photojournalism and professional applications, but commercial digital photography was born. Digital imaging uses an electronic sensor such as a charge-coupled device to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. Some other devices, such as cell phones, now include digital imaging features. Even though there are no chemical processes, a digital camera captures a frame of whatever it happens to be pointed at, which can be viewed later.

Video technology was first developed for television systems, but has been further developed in many formats to allow for consumer video recording. Video can also be viewed on through the Internet as video clips or streaming media clips on computer monitors.

Video is different than film, which captures a moving image as a sequence of still pictures photographically. Different characteristics of a video that the video and audio quality depends upon are:

• Number of frames per second

• Interlacing

• Video resolution

• Aspect ratio

• Color space and bits per pixel

• Video quality

• Video compression method (digital only)

• Bit rate (digital only)

• Stereoscopic


Sound, image and video capture and editing by Takafumi

There would be many ethical things to talk about in this topic. Ethical issues, responsibility, laws these are the topic that I would like to pick up. There are many problems with video capture and editing some video clips and data.

First, I would like to talk about the ethical issues. Is it really good to edit or change anything from the original without getting permission from the creator or not. And also is it ok to make some copies from the originals to earn more money. There are many ethical issues and problems happen in this topic. Now days, people do not think about those things but to earn money for their own good. They would not think about the people who made the original item and make pirated items to earn more money. But also people who buy would also do not think about them. There are many moral issues putted into this subject.

Responsibility would be putted on every people. If people would not make any pirated copies, there would be no need for any laws or ethnical problems with the game makers, or creators. If we all did not buy or make any pirated items, people would not make one anymore. Thus all the responsibility would be putted on us whether buy the pirated item or not and make pirated item or not.

There are few laws made to go against the act. Each law would make the people pay a lot or to keep them in jail for few years. But the laws are not strict enough and it is really hard to keep on track that the numbers of pirated edited items are still made in many places. Which tells us that how important not to buy any pirated items.

In total, the sound image and videos are really depends on our hands to keep them in a really nice way or bad way. Good way is to buy or borrow officially from the store or not buy any pirated items. Bad way treatment is to produce and sell all those pirated stuffs.


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